To cut a long story short, stress is not a disease in the traditional sense of the word. Rather, stress is a normal response to challenging situations that can help individuals cope with adversity and adapt to their environment. However, when stress becomes excessive or chronic, it can increase the risk of physical and psychological disorders.
The definition of disease
To understand why stress is not a disease, it is important to first understand the definition of disease. A disease is defined as a condition that affects the normal functioning of the body, causing symptoms and impairing health. Diseases are typically caused by biological or environmental factors, such as bacteria, viruses, genetics, or exposure to toxic substances.
Stress is not a disease
Stress is a normal response to challenging situations, and is not caused by a biological or environmental factor. For humans, stress is mostly caused by psychosocial events, such as disputes, problems at work or relational turmoil. When faced with stressors (the problems that cause stress), the body's stress response is triggered, leading to the release of stress hormones, such as adrenaline (US: epinephrine) and cortisol. These hormones increase heart rate, respiration, and glucose levels, preparing the body to cope with the stressor.
As said, stress is a normal physiological reaction to adverse events, and therefore does not qualify as a disease. It is rather the opposite: stress can help individuals to cope with adversity and improve their resilience, and protect health in the short term. However, when stress becomes excessive or chronic, it can increase the risk of physical and psychological disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, depression, and anxiety.
Stress as a risk factor for disease
Chronic stress can weaken the immune system, alter metabolism and digestion, and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It can also increase the risk of depression and anxiety, and impair cognitive functioning and decision-making ability.
However, stress is not the only risk factor for disease. Other factors, such as genetics, lifestyle, and exposure to toxins, can also increase the risk of disease. Therefore, while stress is a significant risk factor for disease, it is not the only factor that should be considered when assessing an individual's health status.
Managing stress to reduce disease risk
While stress is not a disease, it is important to manage it effectively to reduce the risk of disease. Effective stress management strategies include physical activity, relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy, social support, and a healthy lifestyle. By reducing stress levels and improving overall health and well-being, individuals can reduce their risk of disease and improve their quality of life.
Stress is a condition of the body
If stress is not a disease in the traditional sense, how should we describe it then, you may wonder. Scientists and psychiatrists say that stress is a particular condition of the body. This condition is defined by all the physiological and mental reactions that take place to deal with a stressor. These include increased alertness, reduced appetite, increased heart rate and breathing, and the tightening of the muscles. The body is said to be in a state that enables “fight-or-flight” reactions. This makes immediate action possible to deal with the stressor, because the body is in an “alarm condition”. Once the stressor no longer poses a problem, the alarm condition reverses to a calm condition, signaling that the stress is over.